What happens in a cell injury?

Article by: Ana Isabel Cadena Segundo | Last update: April 10, 2022
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Cellular injury is an alteration of cellular balance or homeostasis produced by various harmful or harmful mechanisms. Physical: Like trauma, radiation, electricity, heat, cold. Chemicals: Corrosive substances on the skin, toxic and poisons.

How is cell injury manifested?

REVERSIBLE CELLULAR INJURY.

 Tumefaction or cellular swelling: it always appears in cells that are unable to maintain a homeostasis of ions and fluids. , It is manifested by an increase in the size of the cells, the presence of small vacuoles inside the cytoplasm.

What are the types of cell injury?

Cellular injury may be reversible or irreversible. Irreversible injury can cause cell necrosis. But certain physiological and some pathological stimuli can lead the cell to a process called apoptosis (see Annexes at the end).

Why does cell death occur?

Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a genetically controlled cellular process by which cells induce their own death in response to certain stimuli. Hence, the apoptotic process is frequently described as CELL SUICIDE when defining it conceptually.

What is the process of apoptosis?

Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death. It takes place during the early stages of development to remove unneeded cells, for example those found between the fingers when a hand develops.

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What are the stages of apoptosis?

Several phases can be distinguished in the apoptosis process: in phase D1, the molecular mechanisms that initiate the phenomenon are produced; in phase F the DNA is fragmented; in the D2 phase, nuclear and cytoplasmic destruction occurs, and the remains are phagocytosed by macrophages14.

How is apoptosis activated?

The initiation phase of apoptosis is induced when the cell experiences intracellular or extracellular pressures, for example, when there is a shortage of oxygen or when DNA is damaged.

How is cell death determined?

There are two types of cell death modes. One is that which occurs as a result of massive cell injury known as necrosis, while many cells in the body die through a more refined, non-inflammatory, cellular energy-dependent mechanism called apoptosis.

How to avoid cell death?

The participation of calcium is so important that pharmacological treatments or mutations that inhibit the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum have a protective effect against cell death. In contrast, chemicals that increase calcium release induce cell death.

How does the cell get sick?

Leukemia cells divide to form new cells faster than normal, and instead of dying, they accumulate in the bone marrow crowding out normal cells. Cancer cells often enter the bloodstream, causing an increase in the number of white blood cells in the blood.

What are reversible cell injuries?

REVERSIBLE CELLULAR INJURY

Glycolysis causes accumulation of lactic acid and inorganic phosphates that reduce intracellular pH, producing a contraction of cellular chromatin. An edema or acute cellular swelling occurs due to the alteration of the volume due to the malfunction of the plasmatic membrane.

What is the difference between necrosis and apoptosis?

Apoptosis is an orderly process in which cell contents are broken down and packaged into small membrane packets for “harvesting” by immune cells. It contrasts with necrosis (death by injury), in which the contents of the dying cell spill out and cause inflammation.

What are physiological injuries?

Injuries produce an alteration in the function or physiology of organs, systems and devices, disrupting health and causing disease. The medical specialty in charge of identifying the microscopic characteristics of the lesions, generally through biopsies, is pathological anatomy.

What is cell death necrosis?

Necrosis has been defined as the series of events that lead to the rupture of the cytoplasmic membrane and the consequent release of intracellular material, which triggers an inflammatory reaction; some pathologists define it as events subsequent to cell death.

How many cells die per day?

If you extrapolate to 24 hours a day, we get to get rid of about 50 million a day.

Where does apoptosis start?

The extrinsic pathway of apoptosis begins when TNF and other similar members such as FasL bind to the receptor, leading to receptor trimerization and recruitment of a complex containing adapter proteins.

How are Procaspases activated?

The activation signals of class I procaspases can be: irradiation, anticancer drugs and heat that induce nuclear DNA damage; withdrawal of growth factors, activation of death receptors by their specific ligand, thus class I caspases activate class II procaspases and all…

What are the stages that lead to the destruction of a cell?

During cell death processes, three stages can be distinguished: activation, propagation and execution.

What is the phase of the cell cycle?

The cell cycle has different phases, which are called G1, S, G2 and M.

What are injuries and their types?

An injury is damage that occurs to the body. It is a general term that refers to damage caused by accidents, falls, blows, burns, weapons and other causes. In the United States, millions of people are injured each year. These injuries can be minor or severe and life-threatening.

What are injuries and how are they classified?

From the point of view of their severity, injuries are classified as fatal and non-fatal. We can consider as an injury “any harmful alteration produced in the body, particularly in the tissues by an external cause or a disease”.

What are the different types of injuries?

There are several different types of sports injuries, including fractures, sprains, tears, dislocations, tendonitis, and bursitis. Sports injuries can be acute, meaning they occur suddenly, or chronic, occurring from overuse of the injured part and developing gradually over time.

What is the meaning of the word necrosis?

It is the death of body tissue. It occurs when too little blood flows to the tissue. This can happen from injury, radiation, or chemicals. Necrosis cannot be reversed.

What are the types of necrosis?

Types of necrosis

The area of ​​necrosis is replaced by fibrous tissue, but the tissue structure is preserved. Colliquative or liquefactive necrosis: in this case, a rapid degeneration of the tissue occurs, which causes the necrotic area to become liquefied (liquid and viscous), losing the structure of the tissue.

What are the types of apoptosis?

Broadly speaking, there are three main types of biochemical changes that can be seen in apoptosis, 1) activation of caspases, 2) breakage of DNA and other proteins, and 3) membrane changes and recognition by phagocytic cells.

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